HYBRID LEARNING: THE IMPACT OF INTERACTING THROUGH SKYPE ON IRANIAN LEARNERS’ SPEAKING ABILITY
AbstractThe present article aims to investigate the impact of interactions through Skype on Iranian EFL learners’ speaking ability. To meet this end, forty elementary students who were studying English at the Kish Language Institute, Shiraz Branch, Iran participated in the study. Of this number, twenty eight were female and twelve were male students. Their age range was between twenty to thirty five and they were divided into two groups randomly. During the instruction which lasted for two and a half months, the participants of the experimental group interacted with the teacher on their course-related topics for one hour per week according to a schedule besides their weekly four hour face-to-face classes. The speaking paper of the Key English Test (KET) was administered as to assess the participants’ speaking ability. The findings of the study indicated that the participants of the experimental group outperformed those of the control one. This outperformance can be accounted for by the Long’s Interaction hypothesis (1996), Krashen's Input hypothesis (1977), and lower affective filters.
Grauberg, W. (1997). The elements of foreign language teaching. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Educause. (December, 2007). 7 things you should know about Skype. Educause Learning Initiative, 1-2. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eli7032.pdf
Long, M. H., & Doughty, C. J. (2009). The handbook of language teaching. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444315783.
Elia, A. 2006. Language learning in tandem via Skype™. CALL Technologies and the Digital Learner, 6 (3), 269–280.
Lee, S. (2013). A case study on the effects of an L2 writing instructional model for blended learning in higher education, The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 12 (4), 1-10.
Beltrán, O. C. (2009). The use of Skype™ chat for improving writing skills in an A2 adult learners group. Unpublished M.A. thesis in English Language Teaching –Autonomous Learning Environments, Universidad de la Sabana, Chía, Colombia.
Parker, J., Boase-Jelinek, D., & Herrington, J. (2011). Perceptions and reflections: Using Skype chat to build a community of learners. Murdoch. Retrieved from: researchrepository.murdoch.edu. Google Scholar
Chou, P. N. (2012). Teaching strategies in online discussion board: A framework in higher education. Higher Education Studies, 2(2). doi:10.5539/hes.v2n2p25.
Strang, K. D. (2012). Skype synchronous interaction effectiveness in a quantitative management science course. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 10 (1), 3-23.
Guo, S. (2013). Applying web-conferencing in a beginners’ Chinese class. 30th ASCILITE Conference 2013 Proceedings. Macquire University, Sydney, Australia.
Macharaschwili, C. E. & Coggin, L. S. (2013). A Skype-buddy model for blended learning. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 24(2), 167-190.
Verjano, A. C. (2013). Using Skype in a primary class: A case study, Bellaterra Journal of Teaching & Language Learning & Literature, 6 (2), 49-68.
Yen, Y. C., Hou, H. T., & Chang, K. E. (2013). Applying Skype in English as a foreign language instruction: Effect on students' speaking errors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 8167 LNCS, 312-319. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-41175-5_32
Romaña Correa, Y. (2015). Skype™ conference calls: A way to promote speaking skills in the teaching and learning of English, PROFILE Issues in Teachers' Professional Development, 17 (1). 143-156.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors hold copyright immediately after publication of their works and retain publishing rights without any restrictions.
- The copyright commencement date complies the publication date of the issue, where the article is included in.
- Authors grant the journal a right of the first publication of the work under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) that allows others freely to read, download, copy and print submissions, search content and link to published articles, disseminate their full text and use them for any legitimate non-commercial purposes (i.e. educational or scientific) with the mandatory reference to the article’s authors and initial publication in this journal.
- Original published articles cannot be used by users (exept authors) for commercial purposes or distributed by third-party intermediary organizations for a fee.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) during the editorial process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (see this journal’s registered deposit policy at Sherpa/Romeo directory).
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Post-print (post-refereeing manuscript version) and publisher's PDF-version self-archiving is allowed.
- Archiving the pre-print (pre-refereeing manuscript version) not allowed.