MODERNIZATION OF GEOGRAPHIC EDUCATION AT HIGH SCHOOL: GEOINFORMATION TRAINING MODELS
The paper deals with contemporary trends of modernization of higher education in the countries of Europe, emphasizes relation between the quality of education and the level of development of the countries' economy, confirms the importance of digital education and provision of new forms of educational services. The problem of mastering new technologies using geoinformation systems and technologies in the process of training future specialists-geographers and geography teachers is analyzed. It is proved that one of the ways of addressing the outlined problem is the implementation of geoinformation training models, and the place of such models among other types of geography training tools is determined. The paper explains the concepts "training model", "geoinformation training model" and outlines their didactic peculiarities. The system of graphic-sign geographic training models is presented, with geoinformation training models being their subtype. The trends of applying geoinformation systems and technologies in the process of teaching geographic disciplines at higher education institutions are characterized. Based on the experience of application of geoinformation training models, the paper emphasizes that they are tools of students’ independent cognitive activities. The paper distinguishes three groups of these models (general, special, combined) and characterizes their varieties. Considerable attention is paid to characterizing special geoinformation models, viz. rendering models, first of all digital elevation models, "draping" models, as well as models of kinematic animation or dynamic interactive visualization of 3D images, routing optimization and self-training models. A considerable didactic potential of electronic maps and atlases is emphasized, which make it possible to study geographic objects, processes and phenomena in the spatial aspect. The conclusion is made that the application of geoinformation training models, on the one hand, allows students to explore independently certain natural or socio-economic objects of the environment. On the other hand, tutors can plan students’ efficient training activities at a high level of complexity and in accordance with their interests.
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