PECULIARITIES OF CLASSIFICATION OF OBJECTS OF THE INFORMATION FIELD OF CHILDREN WITH DELAY OF PSYCHICAL DEVELOPMENT

Keywords: information field, cognitive processes, cognitive strategies, children with mental retardation

Abstract

The authors made an attempt to outline the features of classification of information field objects in children with mental retardation, which involved studying the formation of processes and operations that underlie the ability to categorize objects and phenomena of the outside world, in particular, hypothesis building, perception of uncertainty of task conditions, analysis information field as forecasting conditions, etc. In the theoretical analysis, it is found that the interaction of the child with the world of information depends on the cognitive development of children and the ability to transform information in accordance with the functioning of cognitive processes. That is, the process of cognition involves the verbalization of knowledge of information that comes from the outside world and is based on the ability to conduct at least a primary analysis of search tasks based on cognitive abilities. Modifications of the method of formation of artificial concepts were considered and analyzed, which made it possible to develop diagnostic tools for elucidating the peculiarities of the cognitive processes of children with mental retardation when perceiving the characteristics of the information field (both the object of reflection and the subject of perception). The application of the technique of forming artificial concepts of J. Bruner allowed us to reveal the features of cognitive strategies in the classification of objects of information field in children with mental retardation and children with normotypic development (ability to classify objects, establish patterns, to formulate the appropriate course of action and possibilities of application in new situations). In an experimental study, it was found that the functioning of the cognitive mechanisms involved in the operationalization of information in children with mental retardation is at a relatively low level. It has been established that children with mental retardation are characterized by: deficiencies in the holistic perception of objects of the information field, which is caused by the lack of formation of processes of perception and attention as mechanisms of information processing; low rate of acquisition of cognitive information of its categorization; narrowly focused orientation on mastering program material, etc. The results obtained provide quite interesting results for reflection, as they indicate the possibility of a higher level (or accelerated development) of poorly developed cognitive abilities in children with mental retardation before processing objects of the information field. Thus, one of the few attempts to scientifically theoretically substantiate and at least briefly characterize the process of classification of information field objects by children with mental retardation is made in the article, as well as the results of an experimental study that allowed to identify the features and outline individual ways of its optimization.

Author Biographies

Lesya I. Prokhorenko, Mykola Yarmachenko Institute of Special Pedagogy and Psychology, NAES of Ukraine

Doctor of Psychology, Head of Department of Support for Children with Special Needs

Oksana V. Romanenko, National Academy of Internal Affairs

Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Professor of the Department of Legal Psychology

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Published
2019-12-30
Section
ICT to support psychological and educational research