ETYMOLOGY, GENESIS AND ESSENCE OF THE CONCEPT "COMPUTATIONAL THINKING"

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33407/itlt.v84i4.3720

Keywords:

computational thinking, algorithmic thinking, universal mental tool, computing, computational science, digitalization, digital intelligence, digital competence

Abstract

Historical factors and preconditions for the emergence and development of “computational thinking”, such as: appearance and distribution of microprocessor computers to the general public; separation of computing disciplines and their transformation into self-sufficient ones; the evolution of ways of thinking and research on computer education; emergence and development of educational programming languages; the emergence of computational science are presented in this article. The periodization of the historical development of the concept of “computational thinking” and disciplines in the field of computing is also proposed. Algorithmic thinking was considered to be the forerunner of computational thinking and a "universal mental tool". The main idea of scientific research was that algorithmic thinking could "teach" the human brain to be a better problem solver in all fields of life. The concepts of "computing" and "computational science" are clarified. The etymology of the concept “computational thinking” is studied. Based on the analysis of foreign scientists’ publications, various approaches to the concept of "computational thinking" and its components are described. There is no clear-cut definition of computational thinking. The concepts of computational thinking are closely interconnected with the concepts of different sciences: computer, mathematical, engineering, pedagogical, psychological and others. Computational thinking should not be confused with algorithmic and/or mathematical thinking, computer literacy, or informational competence. The main difference between computational thinking and other types of thinking is the ability to present information in the form convinient for automation of information, that is necessary for efficient performance of repetitive tasks by computer systems. This emphasizes the relationship between computational thinking (CT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). In conclusion, computational thinking is a universal 21st century skill having a complex structure and necessary for solving various problems in the modern fast-growing digital world.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Tetiana V. Tykhonova, Mykolaiv Regional In-Service Teacher Training Institute

Doctor of Pedagogic Sciences, Head of the Department of Pedagogy, Psychology and Education Management

Hanna L. Koshkina, National University of Shipbuilding after admiral Makarov

English teacher at the Modern Languages Department

References

European Comission. (2010, Aug. 26). COM (2010) 245 final/2, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. A Digital Agenda for Europe. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/cros/system/files/09_Digital%20Agenda.pdf

European Commission. (2017). G. S. Carretero, R. Vuorikari, and Y. Punie. EUR 28558 EN, DigComp 2.1: The Digital Competence Framework for Citizens with eight proficiency levels and examples of use. Publications Office of the European Union. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC106281/web-digcomp2.1pdf_(online).pdf

Кабінет Міністрів України. (2019, Верес. 18). № 856, Положення про Міністерство цифрової трансформації України. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/856-2019-%D0%BF

Проєкт Дія: державні послуги онлайн. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: https://plan.diia.gov.ua/

J. Dostál, X. Wang, W. Steingartner, and P. Nuangchalerm, “Digital intelligence – new concept in context of future of school education”, in Proc. 10th International Conf. of Education, Research and Innovation, Seville, Spain, 2017, pp. 3706 – 3712. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321128357_DIGITAL_INTELLIGENCE_-_NEW_CONCEPT_IN_CONTEXT_OF_FUTURE_OF_SCHOOL_EDUCATION/link/5a0ead5aa6fdcc2b5b5e03e2/download

D. L. Katz, “Conference report on the use of computers in engineering classroom instruction,” Communications of the ACM, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 522–527, 1960.

G. E. Forsythe, “The role of numerical analysis in an undergraduate program,” American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 66, no. 8, pp. 651–662, 1959.

M. Minsky, “Form and content in computer science,” Journal of the ACM, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 197–215, 1970.

E. W. Dijkstra, “Programming as a discipline of mathematical nature,” American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 608–612, 1974.

D. E. Knuth, “Computer science and its relation to mathematics,” American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 81, no. Apr.1974, pp. 323–343, 1974.

Michael Lodi. Introducing Computational Thinking in K-12 Education: Historical, Epistemological, Pedagogical, Cognitive, and Affective Aspects. Computers and Society [cs.CY]. Dipartimento di Informatica - Scienza e Ingegneria, Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna, 2020. English.

Е. К. Хеннер, «Вычислительное мышление», Образование и наука, № 2 (131), с. 18 – 33, 2016. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: file:///C:/Users/koshk/Downloads/vychislitelnoe-myshlenie%20(3).pdf

О. В. Пасічник, «Розвиток алгоримічного мислення на уроках інформатики», Комп’ютер у школі та сім’ї, № 7, с. 13 – 18, 2014. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/komp_2014_7_5

Соціальна ініціатива ІТ-школяр. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: https://mon.gov.ua/storage/app/media/news/%D0%9D%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B8/2018/04/06/Pres-4.pdf

М. Г. Коляда, Комп’ютаційна педагогіка. Донецьк, Україна: Ноулідж, Донец. від-ня, 2013.

M. Tedre, and P. J. Denning, “The Long Quest for Computational Thinking”, in Proc. 16th Koli Calling Conf. on Computing Education Research, Koli, Finland, 2016, pp. 120 – 129. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: http://denninginstitute.com/pjd/PUBS/long-quest-ct.pdf

R. Shackelford et al., “Computing Curricula 2005: The Overview Report”, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Association for Information Systems (AIS), Computer Society (IEEE-CS), USA, 2005. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: https://www.acm.org/binaries/content/assets/education/curricula-recommendations/cc2005-march06final.pdf

P. J. Denning et al., “Computing as a discipline”, Communications of the ACM, vol. 32, no. 1. pp. 9 – 23, 1989. [Online]. Available: https://www.cs.auckland.ac.nz/courses/compsci747s2c/lectures/denning-1989.pdf

S. Papert, Mindstorms: children, computers, and powerful ideas. New York, USA, Basic Books, Inc., 1980. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: http://worrydream.com/refs/Papert%20-%20Mindstorms%201st%20ed.pdf

K. Brennan, and M. Resnick, “New frameworks for studying and assessing the development of computational thinking”, in Proc. the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, Canada, 2012, pp. 1 – 25. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: https://web.media.mit.edu/~kbrennan/files/Brennan_Resnick_AERA2012_CT.pdf

M. R. Benioff, and E. D. Lazowska, “Computational Science: Ensuring America’s Competitiveness”, President’s Information Technology Advisory Committee, Arlington, VA, USA: National Coordination Office for Information Technology Research and Development, 2005. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: http://vis.cs.brown.edu/docs/pdf/Pitac-2005-CSE.pdf

A. B. Shiflet, and G. W. Shiflet, Introduction to Computational Science: Modeling and Simulation for the Sciences, Princeton, New Jersey, USA: Princeton University Press, 2014. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: http://dinus.ac.id/repository/docs/ajar/Shiflet_(2014)_-_Introductin_to_Computational_Science,_Modeling_and_Simlation_for_Sciences_2nd_Edition.pdf

Computer Science Curricula 2013: Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Computer Science. The Joint Task Force on Computing Curricula Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), IEEE Computer Society, December 20, 2013, 514 p. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: https://www.acm.org/binaries/content/assets/education/cs2013_web_final.pdf

Online Etymology Dictionary. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=compute . Дата звернення: Січень 23, 2020.

GNU Collaborative International Dictionary of English. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: http://gcide.gnu.org.ua/?q=computation&define=Define&strategy=. Дата звернення: Січень 23, 2020.

I. Horswill, “What is computation?”, XRDS: Crossroads, The ACM Magazine for Students, vol. 18, pp. 8 – 14, 2012. doi:10.1145/2090276.2090283. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262402747_What_is_computation. Дата звернення: Січень 23, 2020.

J. M. Wing, “Computational thinking’s influence on research and education for all”, Italian Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 7 – 14, 2017. doi: 10.17471/2499-4324/922. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~wing/publications/Wing17.pdf

P. J. Denning, “The profession of IT Beyond computational thinking”, Communications of the ACM, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 28 – 30, 2009. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: http://denninginstitute.com/pjd/PUBS/CACMcols/cacmJun09.pdf

D. Hemmendinger, “A plea for modesty”, ACM Inroads, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 4-7, 2010. doi: https://doi.org/10.1145/1805724.1805725

S. Furber, “Shut down or restart? The way forward for computing in UK schools”, The Royal Society, London, UK, Tech. Rep. 207043, Jan. 2012. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: https://royalsociety.org/~/media/education/computing-in-schools/2012-01-12-computing-in-schools.pdf

A. Yadav, C. Mayfield, N. Zhou, S. Hambrusch, and J. T. Korb, “Computational thinking in elementary and secondary teacher education”, ACM Trans. on Comput. Educ., vol. 14, no. 1, 16 p., 2014. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2576872 [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: https://w3.cs.jmu.edu/mayfiecs/pubs/2014_Yadav_CT.pdf

M. Veenman, and A. Breedveld, Metacognitive Skills. Talent education Erasmus + Project Toolkit for Teachers – TETT. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: http://www.talenteducation.eu/toolkitforteachers/metacognicalskills/what-are-metacognitive-skills/

Y. Allsop, “Assessing computational thinking process using a multiple evaluation approach”, International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, vol. 19, pp. 30 – 55, 2019. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212868918300588#

C. Selby, and J. Woollard, “Refining an understanding of computational thinking”, University of Southampton, 2014. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/372410/1/372410UnderstdCT.pdf

J. J. Lu, and G. H. L. Fletcher, “Thinking about computational thinking”, in Proc. 40th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, New York, USA, 2009, pp. 26 – 264. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: http://people.cs.vt.edu/~kafura/CS6604/Papers/Thinking-About-CT.pdf

G. Gadanidis, “Artificial intelligence, computational thinking, and mathematics education”, Int. J. Inf. Learn. Technol, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 133 – 139, 2017. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ce76/7defec3276b005146c80131ea5b6b9100bf2.pdf?_ga=2.41823138.1662174776.1564325700-763470621.1563814281

International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) and the Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA). Operational Definition of Computational Thinking for K–12 Education. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CNS-1030054, 2011. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: http://www.iste.org/docs/ct-documents/computational-thinking-operational-definitionflyer.pdf

S. Grover, R. Pea, “Computational Thinking in K–12: A Review of the State of the Field”, Educational Researcher, vol. 42, pp. 38 – 43, 2013. doi10.3102/0013189X12463051. [Електронний ресурс]. Доступно: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258134754_Computational_Thinking_in_K-12_A_Review_of_the_State_of_the_Field


REFERENCES (TRANSLATED AND TRANSLITERATED)

European Comission. (2010, Aug. 26). COM (2010) 245 final/2, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. A Digital Agenda for Europe. [Online]. Available: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/cros/system/files/09_Digital%20Agenda.pdf (in English)

European Commission. (2017). G. S. Carretero, R. Vuorikari, and Y. Punie. EUR 28558 EN, DigComp 2.1: The Digital Competence Framework for Citizens with eight proficiency levels and examples of use. Publications Office of the European Union. [Online]. Available: http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC106281/web-digcomp2.1pdf_(online).pdf (in English)

Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. (2019, Sept. 18). № 856, Regulation on the Ministry of Digital Transformation of Ukraine. [Online]. Available: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/856-2019-%D0%BF (in Ukrainian)

Project “Action”: Government Online Services. [Online]. Available: https://plan.diia.gov.ua/ (in Ukrainian)

J. Dostál, X. Wang, W. Steingartner, and P. Nuangchalerm, “Digital intelligence – new concept in context of future of school education”, in Proc. 10th International Conf. of Education, Research and Innovation, Seville, Spain, 2017, pp. 3706 – 3712. [Online]. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321128357_DIGITAL_INTELLIGENCE_-_NEW_CONCEPT_IN_CONTEXT_OF_FUTURE_OF_SCHOOL_EDUCATION/link/5a0ead5aa6fdcc2b5b5e03e2/download (in English)

D. L. Katz, “Conference report on the use of computers in engineering classroom instruction,” Communications of the ACM, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 522–527, 1960. (in English)

G. E. Forsythe, “The role of numerical analysis in an undergraduate program,” The American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 66, no. 8, pp. 651–662, 1959. (in English)

M. Minsky, “Form and content in computer science,” Journal of the ACM, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 197–215, 1970. (in English)

E. W. Dijkstra, “Programming as a discipline of mathematical nature,” American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 608–612, 1974. (in English)

D. E. Knuth, “Computer science and its relation to mathematics,” American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 81, no. Apr.1974, pp. 323–343, 1974. (in English)

Michael Lodi. Introducing Computational Thinking in K-12 Education: Historical, Epistemological, Pedagogical, Cognitive, and Affective Aspects. Computers and Society [cs.CY]. Dipartimento di Informatica - Scienza e Ingegneria, Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://hal.inria.fr/tel-02981951/document (in English)

E. K. Henner, “Computational thinking”, Obrazovanie i nauka, no. 2 (131), pp. 18 – 33, 2016. [Online]. Available: file:///C:/Users/koshk/Downloads/vychislitelnoe-myshlenie%20(3).pdf (in Russian)

O. V. Pasichnyk, “Developing Algorithmic thinking in Computer Science lessons”, Kompiuter u shkoli ta simi. no. 7, pp. 13 – 18, 2014. [Online]. Available: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/komp_2014_7_5 (in Ukrainian)

Social Initiative IT schoolboy, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://mon.gov.ua/storage/app/media/news/%D0%9D%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B8/2018/04/06/Pres-4.pdf (in Ukrainian)

M. G. Koliada, Computational pedagogics. Donetsk, Ukraine: Noulidzh, Donets. vid-nia, 2013. (in Ukrainian)

M. Tedre, and P. J. Denning, “The Long Quest for Computational Thinking”, in Proc. 16th Koli Calling Conf. on Computing Education Research, Koli, Finland, 2016, pp. 120 – 129. [Online]. Available: http://denninginstitute.com/pjd/PUBS/long-quest-ct.pdf (in English)

R. Shackelford et al., “Computing Curricula 2005: The Overview Report”, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Association for Information Systems (AIS), Computer Society (IEEE-CS), USA, 2005. [Online]. Available: https://www.acm.org/binaries/content/assets/education/curricula-recommendations/cc2005-march06final.pdf (in English)

P. J. Denning et al., “Computing as a discipline”, Communications of the ACM, vol. 32, no. 1. pp. 9 – 23, 1989. [Online]. Available: https://www.cs.auckland.ac.nz/courses/compsci747s2c/lectures/denning-1989.pdf (in English)

S. Papert, Mindstorms: children, computers, and powerful ideas. New York, USA, Basic Books, Inc., 1980. [Online]. Available: http://worrydream.com/refs/Papert%20-%20Mindstorms%201st%20ed.pdf (in English)

K. Brennan, and M. Resnick, “New frameworks for studying and assessing the development of computational thinking”, in Proc. the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, Canada, 2012, pp. 1 – 25. [Online]. Available: https://web.media.mit.edu/~kbrennan/files/Brennan_Resnick_AERA2012_CT.pdf (in English)

M. R. Benioff, and E. D. Lazowska, “Computational Science: Ensuring America’s Competitiveness”, President’s Information Technology Advisory Committee, Arlington, VA, USA: National Coordination Office for Information Technology Research and Development, 2005. [Online]. Available: http://vis.cs.brown.edu/docs/pdf/Pitac-2005-CSE.pdf (in English)

A. B. Shiflet, and G. W. Shiflet, Introduction to Computational Science: Modeling and Simulation for the Sciences, Princeton, New Jersey, USA: Princeton University Press, 2014. [Online]. Available: http://dinus.ac.id/repository/docs/ajar/Shiflet_(2014)_- _Introductin_to_Computational_Science,_Modeling_and_Simlation_for_Sciences_2nd_Edition.pdf (in English)

Computer Science Curricula 2013: Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Computer Science. The Joint Task Force on Computing Curricula Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), IEEE Computer Society, December 20, 2013, 514 p. [Online]. Available: https://www.acm.org/binaries/content/assets/education/cs2013_web_final.pdf (in English)

Online Etymology Dictionary. [Online]. Available: https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=compute. Accessed on: January 23, 2020. (in English)

GNU Collaborative International Dictionary of English. [Online]. Available: http://gcide.gnu.org.ua/?q=computation&define=Define&strategy=. Accessed on: January 23, 2020. (in English)

I. Horswill, “What is computation?”, XRDS: Crossroads, The ACM Magazine for Students, vol. 18, pp. 8 – 14, 2012. doi:10.1145/2090276.2090283. [Online]. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262402747_What_is_computation. (in English)

J. M. Wing, “Computational thinking’s influence on research and education for all”, Italian Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 7 – 14, 2017. doi: 10.17471/2499-4324/922. (in English)

P. J. Denning, “The profession of IT Beyond computational thinking”, Communications of the ACM, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 28 – 30, 2009. [Online]. Available: http://denninginstitute.com/pjd/PUBS/CACMcols/cacmJun09.pdf

D. Hemmendinger, “A plea for modesty”, ACM Inroads, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 4-7, 2010. doi: https://doi.org/10.1145/1805724.1805725 (in English)

S. Furber, “Shut down or restart? The way forward for computing in UK schools”, The Royal Society, London, UK, Tech. Rep. 207043, Jan. 2012. [Online]. Available: https://royalsociety.org/~/media/education/computing-in-schools/2012-01-12-computing-in-schools.pdf (in English)

A. Yadav, C. Mayfield, N. Zhou, S. Hambrusch, and J. T. Korb, “Computational thinking in elementary and secondary teacher education”, ACM Trans. on Comput. Educ., vol. 14, no. 1, 16 p., 2014. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2576872 (in English)

M. Veenman, and A. Breedveld, Metacognitive Skills. Talent education Erasmus + Project Toolkit for Teachers – TETT [Online]. Available: http://www.talenteducation.eu/toolkitforteachers/metacognicalskills/what-are-metacognitive-skills/ (in English)

Y. Allsop, “Assessing computational thinking process using a multiple evaluation approach”, International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, vol. 19, pp. 30 – 55, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212868918300588# (in English)

C. Selby, and J. Woollard, “Refining an understanding of computational thinking”, University of Southampton, 2014. [Online]. Available: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/372410/1/372410UnderstdCT.pdf (in English)

J. J. Lu, and G. H. L. Fletcher, “Thinking about computational thinking”, in Proc. 40th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, New York, USA, 2009, pp. 26 – 264. [Online]. Available: http://people.cs.vt.edu/~kafura/CS6604/Papers/Thinking-About-CT.pdf (in English)

G. Gadanidis, “Artificial intelligence, computational thinking, and mathematics education”, Int. J. Inf. Learn. Technol, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 133 – 139, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ce76/7defec3276b005146c80131ea5b6b9100bf2.pdf?_ga=2.41823138.1662174776.1564325700-763470621.1563814281 (in English)

International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) and the Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA). Operational Definition of Computational Thinking for K–12 Education. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CNS-1030054, 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.iste.org/docs/ct-documents/computational-thinking-operational-definitionflyer.pdf (in English)

S. Grover, R. Pea, “Computational Thinking in K–12: A Review of the State of the Field”, Educational Researcher, vol. 42, pp. 38 – 43, 2013. doi:10.3102/0013189X12463051. (in English)

Published

2021-09-28 — Updated on 2021-09-28

How to Cite

Tykhonova Т. В., & Koshkina Г. Л. (2021). ETYMOLOGY, GENESIS AND ESSENCE OF THE CONCEPT "COMPUTATIONAL THINKING". Information Technologies and Learning Tools, 84(4), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.33407/itlt.v84i4.3720

Issue

Section

The methodology, theory, philosophy and history of the use of ICT in education