academic workplace
computer system
digital trust
ICT management
information technology in education

How to Cite

D. E. Marcial, A. Q. Arcelo, J. O. Montemayor, and M. A. Launer, “DIGITAL TRUST IN THE ACADEME: PEOPLE, SOFTWARE, AND HARDWARE”, ITLT, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 178–189, Jun. 2022, doi: 10.33407/itlt.v89i3.4881.


Information technology plays a critical role in educational management and administration. With information technology integral to shaping trust in the workplace, this paper aims to determine digital trust in educational institutions. Specifically, this article presents the measurement of digital trust level in terms of hardware, software, and people in educational institutions. It also shows the relationships and differences between digital trust and the respondents' socio-demographics, employment, and technological profiles. An online survey questionnaire was utilized using the Marcial-Launer Digital Trust in the Workplace Questionnaire, with 878 responses from academic institutions analyzed. A 4-point forced Likert scale and weighted mean were used to measure the level of trust. Chi-square and one-way ANOVA were utilized to determine significant relationships and differences, respectively. A multiple regression was calculated to predict the level of digital trust on the profiles of the respondents. The results illustrate a moderate level of confidence in electronic devices, hardware and software systems, information systems, and people with access to technology in academic workplaces, with a mean of 2.92. The results also show that socio-demographics, employment profiles, and technologic profiles appeared to be significantly related, at the same time showing differences in the level of digital trust. Gender, income level, and connectivity satisfaction were significant predictors of the level of digital trust in the academic sector. Therefore, it is concluded that there is reasonable trust in information technology in terms of hardware, software, and people in academic institutions. Teachers and non-teaching staff have adequate confidence in electronic devices, hardware and software, information systems, and people who have access to digital technology in the academic working environment. It is recommended that IT departments and similar offices orient, guide, and train employees on the use of electronic devices, for them to be familiar with and confident in using such technology. School administrators need to exert more effort to augment the trust levels among their employees.



D. E. Marcial, "Information technology resources in higher education institutions in the Philippines," Philippine Information Technology Journal, vol. 5, no. 1, 2012.

D. S. M. T. Zafar, "Role of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in Education and its Relative Impact," INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY (IJERT) CICTAB, vol. 7, no. 4, 2019.

G. B. Shelly and M. E. Vermaat, Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World, CENGAGE Learning, 2011.

M. Vermaat, S. Sebok, S. Freund, J. Campbell and M. Frudenberg, Discovering Computers 2018, Cengage Learning, 2018.

J. S. Warford, Computer Systems, Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2016, p. 824.

D. E. Marcial and M. A. Launer, "Towards the Measure of Digital Trust in the Workplace: A Proposed Framework," International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Science, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 1-7, 2019.

P. Belohlavek, Peopleware: The Integrator of Hardware and Software, Ebook: Blue Eagle Group, 2011.

B. Chakravorti, A. Bhalla and R. S. Chaturvedi, "How Digital Trust Varies Around the World," 25 February 2021. [Online]. Available: Accessed on: October 16, 2021.

L. Brown, "The importance of trust," 28 February 2014. [Online]. Available: Accessed on: November 20, 2021.

M. Koko and C. O. Nwosu, "Information and Communication Technology Skills and Job Prospects of Office Management Graduates in Rivers State Universities," International Journal of Innovative Information Systems & Technology Research, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 80-89, 2021.

H. Behera, "Role of Information Technology in Education System," International Journal of Creative Research Thoughts (IJCRT), vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 3215-3221, 2020.

T. Karakose, H. Polat and S. Papadakis, "Trust and Digital Schooling," Sustainability, vol. 13, no. 13448, pp. 1-20, 15 August 2021.

A. UTO, "ASU Information Security and Digital Trust," [Online]. Available: Accessed on: December 1, 2021.

R. El Alami, "Building a Digital Trust Ecosystem for Education," 15 October 2020. [Online]. Available: Accessed on: December 2, 2021.

D. E. Marcial and M. A. Launer, "Test-retest Reliability and Internal Consistency of the Survey Questionnaire on Digital Trust in the Workplace," Solid State Technology, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 4369-4381, 2021.

M. E. Vermaat, S. L. Sebok, S. M. Freund, J. T. Campbell and M. Frudenberg, Discovering Computers 2018: Digital Technology, Data, and Devices, Boston, MA, USA: CENGAGE Learning, 2018.

E. Chin, A. Porter Felt, V. Sekar and D. Wagner, "Measuring User Confidence in Smartphone Security and Privacy," in Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security, Washington, DC, USA, 2012.

L. M. Powell, J. Swartz and M. Hendon, "Awareness of mobile device security and data privacy tools," Issues in Information Systems, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1-9, 2021.

M. Buchheit, M. Hermeling, . F. Hirsch, B. Martin and S. Rix, "Software Trustworthiness Best Practices," Industrial Internet Consortium, 2020.

CISCO, "What is Trust? Why Does It Matter for 5G?," Cisco Public, 2019.

H. Chan and L. Chan, "Smart Library and Smart Campus," Journal of Service Science and Management, vol. 11, no. 6, 2018.

OneSpin, "Trust Assurance and Security Verification of Semiconductor IPs and ICs," OneSpin Solutions, 2020.

D. Bourgeois, Information Systems for Business and Beyond, Pressbooks, 2019.

A. Piltzecker, Microsoft Vista for IT Security Professionals, Elsevier Inc., 2007.

S. Zhao, J. Lin, W. Li and B. Qi, "Research on Root of Trust for Embedded Devices based on On-Chip Memory," in 2021 International Conference on Computer Engineering and Application (ICCEA), 2021.

S. M. Meeßen, M. T. Thielsch and G. He, "Trust in Management Information Systems," German Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2019.

M. B. Onte and D. E. Marcial, "Developing a Web-Based Knowledge Product Outsourcing System at a University," Journal of Information Processing Systems, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 548-566, 2013.

B. Ritchie, D. Marshall and A. Eardley, Information Systems in Business, International Thomson Business Press, 1998.

L. Välikangas and G. Sevón, "Of managers, ideas and jesters, and the role of information technology," The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 145-153, 2020.

A. Forrest, "Do you trust your System Admins?," Intrix Cyber Security, 7 September 2021.

G. N. Root III, "The Role of Trust in an Employee-Manager Relationship".Hearst Newspapers.

. B. Vigliarolo, "Zero trust security: A cheat sheet," TechRepublic, 29 May 2020.

S. Becker, S. Giesecke, H. Koziolek, M. Muhle, M. Rohr, M. Boskovic, J. Happe, H. Lipskoch, A. Paul, M. Swaminathan, D. Winteler, A. Dhama, W. Hasselbring, R. Meyer, J. Ploski and T. Warns, "Trustworthy Software Systems: A Discussion of Basic Concepts and Terminology," 2006.

D. Fisher, "Principles of Trust for Embedded Systems," 2012.

C. O’Hara, "Proven Ways to Earn Your Employees’ Trust," Harvard Business Review, 27 June 2014.

J. A. P. Bato and D. E. Marcial, "Students' Attitudes towards the Development of an Online Guidance Counseling System," Information Technologies and Learning Tools, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 40-50, 2016.

G. Ramya, G. Priya, C. Subrata, D. Kim, D. T. Tran and A. N. Le, "AReviewonVariousApplicationsofReputationBased TrustManagement," International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 87-102, 2021.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Дейв Е. Марсіаль, Альфі К. Арсело, Джейд О. Монтемайор, Маркус А. Лаунер


Download data is not yet available.